From 1995, Peugeot and Total work together to achieve significant reductions in fuel consumption, emissions and CO2 TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) of vehicles. In 2013, Peugeot has reduced the weighted average emissions of its European CO2 ranges: in late May, they were 116,3 g / km, improving 121,5 g / km of 2012.
Total researchers working to reduce friction within the engine, thereby contributing to a decrease of 5% CO2 emissions in ten years in the Peugeot engine. The high-end fuel Total Excellium also help reduce fuel consumption.
El FE HYbrid 208 objective is to halve emissions CO2 against the most efficient model 208 with VTi engine 1.0 68, and provide it with a performance close to those of 208 GTi. The strategy is to achieve a continuous improvement of the efficiency of heat engines, continuing downsizing strategies, dissemination of Stop & Start, electric propulsion, etc.. HYbrid4, the diesel-electric hybridization, is part of this trend.
208 HYbrid FE, an efficient design
The design of the floating grille has been revised to reduce permeability in 40%, just 5 dm ². Indeed, with developments made in the engine, cooling needs are lower.
The simplicity of the elements of the body sides facilitates the progression of the air flows. Tires are specially developed by Michelin Tall & Narrow type, ie, large diameter, narrow width. 19 fit rims aluminum'' in which a carbon spoilers close the space between the arms.
Some camcorders are responsible project their images in the rearview mirror. Thus, it is only on the outside of a small support, which evokes sports such as endurance. The rear track improves the efficiency with 40 mm narrowing to help reduce the Cx. Finally, the design of the roof extends in almost horizontal movement and generates a spoiler on the tailgate.
The rear, coupe style, provides in bottom of an exhaust fan vented to circulating flows unhindered by low vehicle thanks to its flat bottom. Finally, to minimize the environmental footprint, LED headlights 208 FE HYbrid have small vertical drifts, inspired by the concept car Onyx. These appendices sent air flows as far as possible from the body thereby minimizing turbulence generated.
208 HYbrid EF, 20% lighter
When presented, the Peugeot 208 revolutionized the supply segment, especially for its weight from kg in Access 975 finish. This figure is remarkable but in the future, vehicles will be lighter but still ensuring comfort and safety.
The composites of 208 HYbrid FE
The 208 HYbrid pointers FE uses very innovative materials. The 208 retains its metal frame. However, composite elements replace the body panels and the floor, so that the weight of the hull is reduced to 295 227 kg.
The outer skin of one piece (20 kg), the flat bottom (8 kg), door panels (2 x 3 kg) and front bumper are carbon fiber. The hood (5 kg) and fins (2 x 1 kg) are composed SEE / carbon, a material which reduces by half a weight while maintaining equivalent mechanical properties. Is obtained from a new type of resin that can be used in crude but it can also be painted or stained in origin.
Finally, with the exception of the glass doors, the other moons are polycarbonate, which saves 5 kg. The FE HYbrid 208 innovation in its application because this material to date was reserved for the headlight lenses. It provides a weight reduction of more than 50% compared to the classic glass.
Unpublished rolling axes
The FE HYbrid 208 rests on Pseudo McPherson type axles including a composite sheet type "fiberglass resin", mounted in a transverse position. This part replaces other groups, such as coil springs, stabilizer bar and lower triangles. The front sheet has a variable elasticity along its surface. Developed and produced in Hutchinson, save these two sheets 20 kg.
Given its size, the 145 / 65 R19 wheels 20% decrease in rolling resistance. Also require less effort to orient the wheel, which can eliminate the power steering, space gains and underhood intake and weight are reduced.
Tires brake discs housed large: 380 diameter by 9,6 mm thick. They have four-piston calipers of 44,5 31,8 mm mm front and rear. When braking, the lower pedal effort and intervention can eliminate the electric motor assisted braking.
A powertrain efficient and high performance
The 208 HYbrid FE is powered by a gasoline-electric hybrid engine. An engine control unit and specific control system manages the entire drivetrain. Globally, the performance of the propulsion system in a remarkable improvement 10%.
1.2 VTi petrol engine high performance-FE
The three-cylinder engine has received different evolutions: cycle optimization, reducing friction losses, thermal management ... All these advances are realized in 10% reduced consumption, keeping the power of 68 CV (50 kW).
The Miller cycle has increased and the compression ratio has been raised from 11: 1 to 16: 1 to increase the thermodynamic efficiency. This could cause auto-ignition of the mixture, something potentially dangerous for the engine, is avoided working on different innovations.
Thus, the amount of unburnt particles in the combustion chamber is reduced with the use of large diameter valves, exhaust duct redesigned, for a different manifold and lift law adapted valves. Moreover, the heat exchanges are optimized in the crankcase of the cylinder through the water channels located between the cylinders. The water now flows through the cylinder head along its length for retrieving calories in each of the sources of heat and combustion chambers between the injectors and the spark plugs.
The direct injection engine adopts, accurately with the cylinder clamping rapport, maximizes the utilization of fuel. Variable valve timing on intake and exhaust, extends the range of optimal performance throughout the rev range, both full load and part load.
These different evolutions do not seek, in all cases, high-rate power. Therefore, the engine has been increased to 1.233 cm3 by increasing the bore and stroke (mm 75 93 x) to preserve 68 CV (50 kW). This increase in turn benefits the maximum torque, which increases by 25%.
The set of moving parts is specific 208 HYbrid FE. The crankshaft is nitrided steel, titanium connecting rods and pistons aluminum alloy and copper are carved in a block. Thus, the weight of the engine decreases despite increased capacity and the connecting rod and the piston shafts are halved.
Friction losses account for about a fifth of the power consumed by a motor. In 208 HYbrid FE have been reduced by about 40% especially for the crankshaft, piston and shaft segments and tabs. These pieces are coated in Diamond Like Carbon and are optimized geometrically.
The head, carved from a single block has been lightened by half by reducing the thickness has been achieved with the design and characteristics of the chosen aluminum. The water circuit and the inlet conduit have been made in a rapid prototyping resin loaded with glass fibers or carbon. For this, the laser head in a printer 3D successive fused layers of aluminum powder. Thus was obtained a functional part quickly and at lower cost.
Built with the same procedure, the basis of the pistons for both refrigerated and served in heavy use at full load, to heat the oil faster in the startup phase.
The radiator size is reduced, which enhances aerodynamic. The alternator, starter and reverse gear have been removed to reduce weight and mechanical losses, but also available space under the hood.
The base of the piloted gearbox series has maintained its high performance and the presence of integrated actuators. The carved block housings are home to a cascade of gears to link the electric motor with the ring gear. To reduce friction losses, the teeth of the sprockets are treated tungsten carbide-chrome.
The grease has been revised to reduce the volume of lubricant and spattering caused by pine nuts, which consumes energy. Now, the lubricant is displaced, at the top, by the crown of the bridge before flow by gravity towards the gear assembly. The gearbox oil changes prototype is based bio-source 75 W grade oils with a high viscosity index (above 250). By offering savings 3% consumption, lubricants foreshadows future.
Competition from a low-viscosity grease weight in proportion to its volume reduces the amount used. Its longevity is assured by operating at a lower temperature by reducing friction. Finally, the bearings of the wheel hubs take a special fluid, adhering fat but limiting friction losses.
Fuel and lubricant
The 208 HYbrid FE uses a Super 95 fuel. The additives of type Excellium benefits, allow themselves to reduce emissions of this engine CO2 over extra gram per kilometer.
A specific engine oil with a very low viscosity has been developed by Total Lubricants from ultra-oil base fluids and the addition of molybdenum friction reducers. Grade 0W 12, this oil develops its properties very quickly with a very small temperature rise time.
A specific architecture
The electric machine combines power and lightness because with 7 kg, develops 30 100 kW kW engine and braking. In both modes, maximum torque of Nm 30. Proportional to the vehicle speed, the maximum speed is 40.000 rpm.
This electric machine ensures reverse functions by reversing the direction of rotation, and starter. It also facilitates the car from rolling in ZEV (pure electric) mode.
The lithium-ion battery with a capacity of 2 MJ votes or 0,56 kWh, consists 90 cells 3,5 V each arranged in groups, which allows in case of a problem, isolate the defective items and secure mobility vehicle.
The battery, which weighs 25 kg, is located next to the fuel tank 20 liters in a structure that is bolted to the underside of the car at the height of the rear bench. The sporting experience justifies this location for its best centralize mass.
The modulator and the control unit are located under the hood in the space left free brake assistance. Hybridization does not therefore have any impact on the car's interior, which preserves its habitability.
The operating principle
Deceleration in both the foot off the gas and the brake, the vehicle decelerates primarily by the electric motor. The hydraulic circuit is effective only in the final phase of braking, when the car stops.
During this phase, the electric motor acts as receiver to recover energy and recharge the battery. In test cycle, this recovery is estimated at 25%. Then, during acceleration, the power is restored and assists the gasoline engine depending on different parameters: pressure on the gas pedal and gear engaged.
The combined consumption of the new FE is HYbrid 208 2,1 l / 100 km.